Possible correlations between cocaine use, generalized anxiety and panic disorders in adolescents and young adults: a review of the literature
Keywords:Panic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; cocaine use; substance use; adolescents
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders have been associated with a vast range of harmful behaviors. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possible correlations between anxiety disorders, especially generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), panic attacks and cocaine use among adolescents and young adults.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted to evaluate pertinent studies up to July 06, 2020 in Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases.
RESULTS: A total of 20 articles were considered eligible; most studies reported that young people who experienced PD, panic attacks or GAD were more likely to have been cocaine users, with the risk being higher when individuals were addicted.
CONCLUSIONS: The association between cocaine use, PD and GAD, poses significant challenges to health providers of adolescents and young adults, as comorbidity complicates the treatment, prognosis and course of the disorders.
Grant BF, Stinson FS, Hasin DS, et al. (2005). Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of bipolar I disorder and axis I and II disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J ClinPsychiatry.2005;66:1205–1215 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291705006069
Blanco C, Florez – Salamanca L, Secades – Villa R, et al. (2018). Predictors of Initiation of Nicotine, Alcohol, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The American Journal on Addictions 2018;XX:1-8 https://doi.org/10.1111/ajad.12764
Gajecki M, Berman AH, Sinadinovic K, et al. (2014). Effects of Baseline Problematic Alcohol and Drug Use on Internet – Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Outcomes for Depression, Panic Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder. PLoS One 2014;9(8):e104615 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104615
Pires AJ, Casanova CC, Quevedo Lde A, et al. (2014). Panic disorder and psychoactive substance use in primary care. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2014;36:113-8 https://doi.org/10.1590/2237-6089-2013-0042
Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS, et al. (1990). Comorbidity of mental-disorders with alcohol and other drug-abuse-results from the epidemiologic catchment-area (ECA) study. J Am Med Assoc 1990;264: 2511–2518
Bolton JM, Cox B, Clara I, Sareen J (2006). Use of alcohol and drugs to selfmedicate anxiety disorders in a nationally representative sample. J Nerv Ment Dis 2006;194: 818–825 doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000244481.63148.98
Khantzian EJ (1985). The self-medication hypothesis of addicctive disordersfocus on heroin and cocaine dependence Am J Psychiatry 1985;142: 1259–1264 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-1837-8_7
Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ (2009). Tests of Causal Links Between Alcohol Abuse or Dependence and Major Depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66: 260–266 doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.543
Grant BF, Goldstein RB, Chou SP, et al. (2008). Sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:1051- 66 doi:10.1038/mp.2008.41
Kenneson A, Funderburk JS, Maisto SA (2013). Substance use disorders increase the odds of subsequent mood disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend 2013;133: 338–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.06.011
Kushner MG, Abrams K, Borchardt C (2000). The relationship between anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders: A review of major perspectives and findings. Clin Psychol Rev 2000;20:149–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00027-6
Zvolensky MJ, Cougle JR, Johnson KA, et al. (2010). Marijuana use and panic psychopathology among a representative sample of adults. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;18:129-34. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019022
de Matos BM, de Mola CL, Trettim JP, et al. (2018). Psychoactive substance abuse and dependence and its association with anxiety disorders: a population – based study of young adults in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 2018;00(00):1-5. DOI: 10.1590/1516-4446-2017-2258
Groenman AP, Janssen TW, Oosterlaan J (2017). Childhood psychiatric disorders as risk factor for subsequent substance abuse: a metaanalysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;56:556-69 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.05.004
Bandelow B and Michaelis S (2015). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17:327-35 doi: 10.31887/DCNS.2015.17.3
Martin P (2003). The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: a review. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2003;5:281-98 doi: 10.31887/DCNS.2003.5.3/pmartin
Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Jin R, et al. (2006). The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:415-24 doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.4.415
Viana MC and Andrade LH (2012). Lifetime Prevalence, age and gender distribution and age-of-onset of psychiatric disorders in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: results from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2012;34:249-60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbp.2012.03.001
Aronson TA and Logue CM (1987). On the longitudinal course of panic disorder: development history and predictors of phobic complications. Compr Psychiatry 1987;28:344-55 https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X(87)90071-X
Ballenger J, Davidson JR, Lecrubier Y, et al. (2001). Consensus statement on generalised anxiety disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(11):53–58
Johnson JG, Cohen P, Pine DS, et al. (2000). Association between cigarette smoking and anxiety disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. JAMA. 2000;284:2348-51 doi:10.1001/jama.284.18.2348
Roberts MC, Emsley RA, Pienaar WP, Stein DJ (1999). Anxiety disorders among abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:1359-61 https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.50.10.1359
Kilgus MD and Pumariega AJ (2009). Psychopathology in Cocaine – abusing Adolescents. Addict Disord Their Treatment 2009;8:139-144 doi: 10.1097/ADT.0b013e3181825a0a
Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, et al. (2006). Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2005 (NIH Publication No. 06-5882). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2006:16–18
Herrero MJ, Domingo-Salvany A, Torrens M, Brugal MT (2008). Psychiatric comorbidity in young cocaine users: induced versus independent disorders. Addiction. 2008;103:284–93 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02076.x
Topp L, Day C, Degenhardt L (2003). Changes in patterns of drug injection concurrent with a sustained reduction in the availability of heroin in Australia. Drug Alcohol Depend 2003;70: 275–86 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(03)00013-9
Buckner JD, Reynolds E, Kopetz C, Lejuez CW, 2011. Cocaine Dependence and Anxiety Sensitivity Among Patients Presenting for Residential Drug Use Treatment. 2011;25(1):22-30 DOI: 10.1891/0889-8322.214.171.124
DeBeck K, Kerr T, Li K, et al. (2009). Smoking of crack cocaine as a risk factor for HIV infection among people who use injection drugs. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2009;181(9):585–589 https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.082054
Minkoff H, Zhong Y, Strickler HD, et al. (2008). The relationship between cocaine use and human papillomavirus infections in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2008;(3):1–7 https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/587082
Shannon K, Rusch M, Morgan R, et al. (2008). HIV and HCV prevalence and gender-specific risk profiles of crack cocaine smokers and dual users of injection drugs. Substance Use and Misuse, 2008;43(3–4):521–534 4 https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701772355
Anthony JC, Tien AY, Petronis KR (1989). Epidemiologic evidence on cocaine use and panic attacks. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129:543–9 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115166
Rosenbaum JF (1986). Cocaine and panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:1320 DOI: 10.1176/ajp.143.10.1320a
Valentiner DP, Mounts NS, Deacon BJ (2004). Panic attacks, depression and anxiety symptoms, and substance use behaviors during late adolescence. Anxiety Disorders 2004;18:573-585 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2003.04.001
Myrick H and Brady KT (1997). Social phobia in cocaine-dependent individuals. Am J Addict. 1997;6:99–104 doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.10.1693.
Cottler LB, Compton 3rd WM, Mager D, et al. (1992). Posttraumatic stress disorder among substance users from the general population. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149:664–70 doi: 10.1176/ajp.149.5.664
McFall ME, Mackay PW, Donovan DM (1992). Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and severity of substance abuse in Vietnam veterans. J Stud Alcohol. 1992;53:357–63 DOI: 10.15288/jsa.1992.53.357
Satel SL and McDougle CJ (1991). Obsessions and compulsions asso-ciated with cocaine abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:947 DOI: 10.1176/ajp.148.7.947a
Rounsaville BJ, Anton SF, Carroll K, Budde D, Prusoff BA, Gawin F. Psychiatric diagnoses of treatment-seeking cocaine abusers. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48:43–51 DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810250045005
Modesti PA, Reboldi G, Cappuccio FP, et al. (2016). Panethnic Differences in Blood Pressure in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta – Analysis. PLoS ONE 2016;11(1):e01477601 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147601
Sareen J, Chartier M, Paulus MP, Stein MB, 2004. Illicit drug use and anxiety disorders: Findings from two community surveys. 2006;142:11-17 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2006.01.009
Alvarado GF, Storr CL, Anthony JC, 2010. Suspected Causal Association Between Cocaine Use and Occurrence of Panic. Substance Use and Misuse 2010;45:1019-1032 DOI: 10.3109/10826080903534509
O’ Brien MS, Wu LT, Anthony JC, 2005. Cocaine Use and the Occurrence of Panic Attacks in the Community: A Case – Crossover Approach. Substance Use and Misuse 2005;40:285-297 DOI: 10.1081/ja-200049236
Deacon BJ and Valentiner DP, 2000. Substance Use and Non – Clinical Panic Attacks in A Young Adult Sample. Journal of Substance Abuse 2000;11(1):7-15 doi: 10.1016/s0899-3289(99)00017-6.
Newcomb MD, Bentler PM, Fahy B, 1987. Cocaine Use and Psychopathology: Associations Among Young Adults. The International Journal of the Addictions 1987;22(12):1167-118 DOI: 10.3109/10826088709027479
Narvaez JCM, Jansen K, Pinheiro RT, et al. (2014). Psychiatric and substance – use comorbidities associated with lifetime crack cocaine use in young adults in the general population. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2014;55(6):1369-1376 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.021
Ohannessian CM (2014). Anxiety and Substance Use During Adolescence. Substance Abuse 2014;35:418-425 doi: 10.1080/08897077.2014.953663
Mackesy – Amiti ME, Donenberg GR, Ouellet LJ (2012). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among young injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2012;124:70-78 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.12.012
Zubaran C, Foresti K, Thorell MR, Franceschini PR (2013). Anxiety symptoms in crack cocaine and inhalant users admitted to a psychiatric hospital in southern Brazil. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2013;59(4):360-367 DOI: 10.1016/j.ramb.2013.01.008
Ziedonis DM, Rayford BS, Bryant KJ, Rounsaville BJ (1994). Psychiatric Comorbidity in White and African – American Cocaine Addicts Seeking Substance Abuse Treatment. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1994;45(1):43-49 DOI: 10.1176/ps.45.1.43
Conway KP, Compton W, Stinson FS, Grant BF (2006). Lifetime Comorbidity of DSM – IV Mood and Anxiety Disorders and Specific Drug Use Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:247-257 doi: 10.4088/jcp.v67n0211.
Weiss RD, Mirin SM, Michael JL, Sollogub AC (1986). Psychology in Chronic Cocaine Abusers. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1986;12(1-2):17-29 doi: 10.3109/00952998609083740
Compton WM, Thomas YF, Conway KP, Colliver JD (2005). Developments in the epidemiology of drug use and drug use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2005;162:1494−1502 doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.8.1494.
Pavarin RM (2006). Substance use and related problems: A study on the abuse of recreational and not recreational drugs in northern Italy. Annali dell Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 2006;42:477−484
Armstrong TD and Costello EJ (2002). Community studies on adolescent substance use, abuse, or dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2002;70:1224−1239 DOI: 10.1037//0022-006x.70.6.1224
Chan YF, Dennis ML and Funk RR (2008). Prevalence and comorbidity of major internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents and adults presenting to substance abuse treatment. J SubstAbuse Treat, 2008;34:14−24 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2006.12.031
Blume AW, Schmaling KB and Marlatt GA (2000). Revisiting the self-medication hypothesis from a behavioral perspective. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2000;7:379–384 DOI:10.1016/S1077-7229(00)80048-6
Herrero MJ, Domingo – Salvany A, Brugal MT, Torrens M (2011). Incidence of psychopathology in a cohort of young heroin and / or cocaine users. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2011;41:55-63
Deacon BJ and Valentiner DP (2000). Substance use and non – clinical panic attacks in a young adult sample. Journal of Substance Abuse 2000;11:7-15 doi: 10.1016/s0899-3289(99)00017-6.
Jeri FR, Sanchez CC, Pozo T, et al. (1978). Further experience with the syndromes produced by coca paste smoking. Bull Narc 1978;30:l-ll