Resilience in Children and Adolescents during the Covid-19 pandemic


  • Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou Department of Primary Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • Eirini Palivakou Department of Primary Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • Fotini Polychroni Department of Psychology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens


children and adolescent resilience; Covid-19; lockdown


Purpose: The coronavirus pandemic has affected people's lives. Children and adolescents are a a group affected by the consequences of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of resilience in children and adolescents in relation to school grade, gender and school performance during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Methods: In the present study 836 primary and secondary school students completed an online questionnaire on resilience during the second and third wave of the pandemic Covid-19 in Greece.
Primary school students reported higher levels of resilience as compared to junior high school and high school students. Furthermore, resilience levels were higher for primary and high school girls, while the reverse was true only for high school students. School performance positively correlated with resilience.
It appears that children are better able to cope with challenges and stress demonstrating a capacity to recover from stress, adversity, failure, challenge, or even trauma. The results have implications about the design and the implementation of primary and secondary prevention of social emotional programs in the school community.



Dvorsky, MR., Breaux, R, & Becker, SP. Finding ordinary magic in extraordinary times: child and adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2020; 1: 1-3.

Zhou, Shuang-Jiang, et al. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of psychological health problems in Chinese adolescents during the outbreak of COVID-19. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2020; 29(6):749-758.

Jiao, WY, Wang, LN, Liu, J, Fang, SF, Jiao, FY, Pettoello-Mantovani, M, Somekh, E. Behavioral and Emotional Disorders in Children during the COVID-19 Epidemic. J. Pediatr. 2020; 221 (1): 264–266. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.013

Di Giorgio, E, Di Riso, D, Mioni, G, Cellini, N. The interplay between mothers’ and children behavioral and psychological factors during COVID-19: An Italian study. Eur. Child. Adolesc. Psychiatry 2020; 30: 1401– 1412.

Liu, Qi, et al. The prevalence of behavioral problems among school-aged children in home quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.Journal of Affective Disorders 2021;279:412-416.

Szakács, A, Niklas D, & Tove H. Increased childhood incidence of narcolepsy in western Sweden after H1N1 influenza vaccination. Neurology 2013; 80 (14): 1315-1321.

Liliana, L. et al. Covid-19 and the Spanish Flu. From Suffering to Re-silience. BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience 2021; 11 (3): 01-07.

Zhou, X. Managing psychological distress in children and adolescents following the COVID-19 epidemic: A cooperative approach. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2020; 12(1): 76–78.

Mactavish, A, Mastronardi, C, Menna, R, Babb, K.A, Battaglia, M, Amstadter, AB, & Rappaport, LM. Children’s Mental Health in Southwestern Ontario during summer 2020 of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2021; 30(3), 177-190.

Brooks, SK., Webster, R.K., Smith, LE., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., Rubin, GJ. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. Τhe Lancet 2020; 395: 912–920. 6736(20)30460-8. SEPT-DEC 2021 |VOLUME 1, ISSUE 4 30

Masten, AS. Global Perspectives on Resilience in Children and Youth. Child. Dev. 2013; 85(1): 6–20.

Ungar, M, Ghazinour, M, Richter, J. Annual Research Review: What is resilience within the social ecology of human development? J. Child. Psychol.Psychiatry 2012; 54(4):348- 366.

Stark, AM., et al. "Shifting from survival to supporting resilience in children and families in the COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons for informing US mental health priorities. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2020; 12 (1): 133-135.

Savitsky, B, Findling, Y, Ereli, A, & Hendel, T. Anxiety and coping strategies among nursing students during the covid-19 pandemic. Nurse Education in Practice 2020, 46 (1), 102809.

Masten, AS, & Motti-Stefanidi, F. Multisystem resilience for children and youth in disaster: Reflections in the context of COVID-19. Adversity and ResilienceScience 2020; 1 (2): 95-106.

Madrid, PA. et al. Challenges in meeting immediate emotional needs: Short-term impact of a major disaster on children's mental health: Building resiliency in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Pediatrics 2006; 117 (4): 448-453.

Antoniou, AS, Polychroni, F, & Kotroni, C. Working with students with special educational needs in Greece: Teachers' stressors and coping strategies. International Journal of Special Education 2009; 24(1):100-101.

Duan, L, Shao, X, Wang, Y, Huang, Y, Miao, J, Yang, X, & Zhu, G. An investigation of mental health status of children and adolescents in china during the outbreak of COVID-19. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2020; 275 (1): 112-118.

Pinchoff, J, Santhya, KG., White, C., Rampal, S, Acharya, R, & Ngo, TD. Gender specific differences in COVID-19 knowledge, behavior and health effects among adolescents and young adults in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India. PloS One 2020; 15(12): 0244053.

González-Valero, G, Zurita-Ortega, F, Lindell- Postigo, D, Conde-Pipó, J, Grosz, WR., & Badicu, G. Analysis of self-concept in adolescents before and during COVID-19 lockdown: Differences by gender and sports activity. Sustainability 2020; 12(18), 1-16.

Sakka, S, Nikopoulou, VA., Bonti, E, Tatsiopoulou, P et al. Assessing test anxiety and resilience among Greek adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences 2020; 7(2): 173-178. doi:10.22543/7674.72.P173178.

Lee, H, & Shin, S. Effects of elementary school health teachers' COVID-19 knowledge and resilience on their performance at infection control. Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing 2021; 35(2): 297-309.

Cusinato, M, Iannattone S, Spoto, A, Poli, M, Moretti, C, Gatta, M, & Miscioscia, M. Stress, resilience, and well-being in Italian children and their parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020; 17(22): 8297.

Liebenberg, L, Ungar, M, & LeBlanc, JC. The CYRM-12: A brief measure of resilience. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2013; 104(2): 131-135.

Moore, JT, et al. Disparities in incidence of COVID-19 among underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in counties identified as hotspots during June 5–18, 2020—22 states, February–June 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2020; 69(33): 1122-1126. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6933e1

Bhatia, R. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on child and adolescent mental health. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2020; 33(6): 568-570. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000651

Koning, N, Hagedoorn, N, Stams, GJJ., Assink, M, & van Dam, L. What makes Dutch youth comply with preventive COVID‐19 measures? An explorative study. Journal of Community Psychology 2021; 1: 1-13.

Karaşar, B., & Canlı, D. Psychological resilience and depression during the Covid-19 pandemic in Turkey. Psychiatria Danubina 2020; 32(2): 273-279.

Sánchez-Teruel, D, Robles-Bello, MA., Lara- Cabrera, M, & Valencia-Naranjo, N. Gender implications of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale in the Spanish population: A validation study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2021; 1 :1-9.

Zhang, C, Ye, M, Fu, Y, Yang, M, Luo, F, Yuan, J, & Tao, Q. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on teenagers in China. Journal of Adolescent Health 2020; 67(6): 747-755.

Agustini, EN, Asniar, I., & Matsuo, H. The prevalence of long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents after the tsunami in Aceh. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2011; 18(6): 543-549.

Lee, SJ, Ward, KP, Chang, OD, & Downing, KM. Parenting activities and the transition to home-based education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and Youth Services Review 2021; 122, (105585): 1-10. 5585

Smith, J, Guimond, FA, Bergeron, J, St-Amand, J, Fitzpatrick, C, & Gagnon, M. Changes in Students’ Achievement Motivation in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Function of Extraversion/Introversion?. Education Sciences 2021; 11(1): 30-38.

Verger, NB, Urbanowicz, A, Shankland, R, & McAloney-Kocaman, K. Coping in isolation: predictors of individual and household risks and resilience against the COVID-19 pandemic. Social Sciences & Humanities Open 2021; 3(1), 100123.

Saurabh, K, & Ranjan, S. (2020). Compliance and psychological impact of quarantine in children and adolescents due to Covid-19 pandemic. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2020; 87: 532-536.






Original research work